In November of 2001, John Bolton, then U.S. Undersecretary of State, announced at the BTWC in Geneve that the United States was ''concerned about Sudan's growing interest" in biological weapons, and suggested Sudan was among five nations believed to be pursuing germ warfare. A disturbing picture emerges of Sudan's attempts to acquire a CBW capability.
Meanwhile, teams of Iraqi intelligence, military and commando officers arrived in Khartoum in the summer of 1995 to assist the Sudanese armed forces against what the Iraqis now called ‘foreign intervention in Sudan.’” The House report is filled with troubling information. The Iraqi units were deployed to guard Saddam’s weapons of mass destruction inside Sudan — to train the Sudanese in intelligence gathering and to restructure the Islamic Sudanese Army in the same manner as the Iraqi Republican Guard.
Among the chemical weapons tested in Kafuri are 122mm and 152mm artillery shells, as well as rocket and tactical missile warheads. In building this factory, the Sudanese relied on technical assistance from Iraq and Iran. Additional expertise came from Egypt, Croatia, Bulgaria and Russia — all recruited by Iraqi intelligence on behalf of the Sudanese. The key experts who helped with this program have been residing in a luxurious dormitory inside the compound.
Such bombs have previously been associated with the former Soviet Union's biological weapon program 'Biopreparat', as a method for delivering BW agents, sensitive to heat and in some instances ultraviolet light. In addition to these factors, Sudan has very primitive public health care infrastructure and would not be in a position to contain an outbreak of deliberate disease without significant intervention by the UN (WHO). Unlike chemical weapons, biological weapons are much cheaper to produce and most are selected and developed to be highly transmissible, so any outbreak would be global public health concern. Unfortunately, biological agents and a veterinary vaccine facility can produce low cost BW. In nations, like Sudan, which suffer poverty, war, disease and lack public health infrastructures, biological weapons for warfare may not pose ethical dilemmas. As I frequently state, the issue then is one of containment and response by the intentional community who will be at risk should Khartoum decide to ramp up a program, particularly with support from major state sponsors of terrorism: Iran.
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